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What is Fuel Injection System? How does it work?


These days, almost every vehicle on the road is powered by a fuel-injected engine. But what is the fuel injection system?

In what could be called the 'old days', the carburetor was the technology of choice for adding a mixture of air and fuel to the engine. However, with stricter emission limits set around the world, producers had to create a much better way to achieve this mix. Developing more efficient carburetors was not cost effective. So the decision to switch to fuel injection was the logical next step. This has resulted in more sophisticated systems, and today's fuel injection uses complex computer systems and astronomical fuel pressures to maximize every drop of fuel to power the vehicle.

The theory that fuel injection is a 'newer' technology than carburetors is fundamentally wrong. The fuel injection system has been quite simple since the early 1900s. This was pioneered by the German company Bosch in the 1950s.


Using a mechanical injection pump, the fuel was pumped into an injector engine rather than relying on the engine's vacuum to suck the fuel through the carburetor. This increased power and efficiency and paved the way for fuel injection to become the most popular form of fuel delivery.

So How Does the Fuel Injection System Work?


Starting with the fuel tank, the first main difference is that a higher pressure fuel pump is used than that found in a carburetor vehicle. This pump forces fuel into the engine through the fuel lines and fuel filter, where it then reaches the fuel rail. The fuel rail houses fuel injectors and a fuel pressure regulator that regulate the amount of fuel needed, as the name suggests.